Research Papers

Need help understanding the facts about animal experiments? There are many resources available – academic papers, systematic reviews and conference proceedings - that provide credible references as to why animals are not good models for human medicines.

The following list provides links to such items we believe can assist you.

Citation
Abolins, S., King, E. C., Lazarou, L., Weldon, L., Hughes, L., Drescher, P., et al. (2017). The comparative immunology of wild and laboratory mice, Mus musculus domesticus. Nature Communications(3 May).
Link:
https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14811.pdf
Keywords:
Bias, mouse model, mice
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Abstracts of the 9th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, Prague, 2014. (24-28 August).
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/ALTEX-Proceedings/Current-Proceedings.97.html
Keywords:
Alternatives, 3Rs, animal model
Record type:
Conference Proceedings
Citation
Akhtar, A. (2011). Animals and public health: Why treating animals better is critical to human welfare. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Link:
http://www.palgraveconnect.com/pc/doifinder/10.1057/9780230358522
Keywords:
Animal welfare, ethics, animal experiments, public health
Record type:
Book
Citation
Akhtar, A. (2015). The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(04), 407-419.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180115000079
Keywords:
Ethics, drug development, bias, species specificity, animal model
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Amerio, A., Gálvez, J. F., Odone, A., Dalley, S. A., & Ghaemi, S. N. (2015). Carcinogenicity of psychotropic drugs: A systematic review of US Food and Drug Administration–required preclinical in vivo studies
Link:
http://anp.sagepub.com/content/49/8/686.abstract
Keywords:
Psychotropic drugs, carcinogenicity, animal model, bias
Record type:
Citation
Amisten, S., Atanes, P., Hawkes, R., Ruz-Maldonado, I., Liu, B., Parandeh, F., et al. (2017). A comparative analysis of human and mouse islet G-protein coupled receptor expression. Scientific Reports, 7, 46600.
Link:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5395952/pdf/srep46600.pdf
Keywords:
Bias, mouse model, mice
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Animal Justice Project USA, & Taxpayers Protection Alliance. (2016). Deadly doses: Exposing the Federal Government's funding of the slaughter of millions of dollars & countless creatures: Animal Justice Project USA and Taxpayers Protection Alliance
Link:
http://www.protectingtaxpayers.org/assets/files/Deadly%20Doses%20March%202016.pdf
Keywords:
Recreational drugs, waste of taxes, rats, mice
Record type:
Report
Citation
Archibald, K., Coleman, R., & Foster, C. (2011). Open letter to UK Prime Minister David Cameron and Health Secretary Andrew Lansley on safety of medicines. The Lancet, 377(9781), 1915.
Link:
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2811%2960802-7/fulltext
Keywords:
Animal experiments, drug safety, drug effectiveness
Record type:
Expert Opinion
Citation
Bailey, J. (2009). An examination of chimpanzee use in human cancer research. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 37(4), 399-416
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_%20chimpanzees_cancer_ATLA_2009.pdf
Keywords:
Animal welfare, chimpanzees, non-human primates, drug evaluation
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Bailey, J. (2010). An assessment of the use of chimpanzees in hepatitis C research past, present and future: 1. Validity of the chimpanzee model. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 38(5), 387-418
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_hepC_future_1_ATLA_2010.pdf
Keywords:
Viral hepatitis vaccines, immunology, animal models, alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Bailey, J. (2010). An assessment of the use of chimpanzees in hepatitis C research past, present and future: 2. Alternative replacement methods. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 38(6), 471-494
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_hepC_future_2_ATLA_2010.pdf
Keywords:
Animal welfare, alternatives, hepatitis C, species specificity
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Bailey, J. (2011). Lessons from chimpanzee-based research on human disease: the implications of genetic differences. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 39(6), 527-540.
Link:
http://www.atla.org.uk/category/atla39/atla39-6/
Keywords:
Ethics, species specificity, drug safety, drug effectiveness, reproducibility of results
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Bailey, J. (2014). Monkey-based research on human disease: the implications of genetic differences. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA, 42(5), 287-317.
Link:
http://www.atla.org.uk/monkey-based-research-on-human-disease-the-implications-of-genetic-differences/
Keywords:
Animal model, epigenetics, gene expression, genetics, macaque, monkeys, species specificity
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Bailey, J., & Pereira, S. (2017). Advances in neuroscience imply that harmful experiments in dogs are unethical. Journal of Medical Ethics(24 July online).
Link:
http://jme.bmj.com/content/early/2017/07/23/medethics-2016-103630
Keywords:
Ethics, neuroscience
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Bailey, J., & Taylor, K. (2009). The SCHER report on non-human primate research - biased and deeply flawed. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA, 37(4), 427-435
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_Taylor_SCHERprimates_Comment_ATLA_2009.pdf
Keywords:
Alternatives, ethics, legislation & jurisprudence/standards, drug evaluation, EU, primates, toxicity testing
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Bailey, J., & Taylor, K. (2016). Non-human primates in neuroscience research: The case against its scientific necessity. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals - ATLA, 44(1)
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_Taylor_primate%20neuroscience_ATLA_2016.pdf
Keywords:
Primates
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Bailey, J., Thew, M., & Balls, M. (2013). An analysis of the use of dogs in predicting human toxicology and drug safety. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA, 41(5), 335-350.
Link:
http://altweb.jhsph.edu/pubs/journals/atla/41_5/41_5Bailey.pdf
Keywords:
Alternatives, dogs, drug safety, drug effectiveness
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Bailey, J., Thew, M., & Balls, M. (2014). An analysis of the use of animal models in predicting human toxicology and drug safety. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA, 42(3), 181-199.
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/Bailey_allspecies_toxicology_tox%20paper%202_ATLA_2014.pdf
Keywords:
Drug safety, preclinical research, rats, mouse, mice, rabbits, unreliable research, bias, animal model, species specificity
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Bailey, J., Thew, M., & Balls, M. (2015). Predicting human drug toxicity and safety via animal tests: can any one species predict drug toxicity in any other, and do monkeys help? Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 43(6), 393-403.
Link:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753942
Keywords:
Bias, animal tests, dog, drug development, monkey, mouse, non-human primate, preclinical testing, rabbit, rat, toxicology
Record type:
Academic Paper,Data & Statistics
Citation
Bain, L., Posey Norris, S. M., Keren, N. I., & Stroud, C. (2017). Therapeutic development in the absence of predictive animal models of nervous system disorders: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Link:
https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24672/therapeutic-development-in-the-absence-of-predictive-animal-models-of-nervous-system-disorders
Keywords:
alternatives to animal research, bias, evidence, nervous system
Record type:
Expert Opinion
Citation
Bakand, S. (2016). Cell culture techniques essential for toxicity testing of inhaled materials and nanomaterials in vitro Journal of Tissue Science & Engineering, 7(3).
Link:
https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/cell-culture-techniques-essential-for-toxicity-testing-of-inhaled-materials-andnanomaterials-in-vitro-2157-7552-1000181.php?aid=81104
Keywords:
Air liquid interface, cell culture techniques, inhaled materials, in vitro, nanomaterials, nanoparticles, toxicity testing, alternatives to animal resarch
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Batista, K. T., Andrade, R. R. d., & Bezerra, N. L. (2012). The role of Research Ethics Committees. O papel dos comitês de ética em pesquisa. Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Plástica, 27, 150-155.
Link:
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbcp/v27n1/en_25.pdf
Keywords:
Animal ethics committees
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Beauchamp, T. L., & Morton, D. B. (2015). The upper limits of pain and suffering in animal research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 24(04), 431-447.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180115000092
Keywords:
Ethics, animal welfare, animal suffering,
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Beery, A. K., & Zucker, I. (2011). Sex bias in neuroscience and biomedical research. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(3), 565-572
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763410001156
Keywords:
Sex bias, nervous system diseases, estrous cycles
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Bello, S., Krogsboll, L. T., Gruber, J., Zhao, Z. J., Fischer, D., & Hrobjartsson, A. (2014). Lack of blinding of outcome assessors in animal model experiments implies risk of observer bias. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 67(9), 973-983.
Link:
http://www.jclinepi.com/article/S0895-4356%2814%2900157-7/abstract
Keywords:
Flaws in animal research, animal model, bias
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Benam, Kambez H., Novak, R., Nawroth, J., Hirano-Kobayashi, M., Ferrante, Thomas C., Choe, Y., et al. (2016). Matched-comparative modeling of normal and diseased human airway responses using a microengineered breathing lung chip. Cell Systems, 3(5), 456–466.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cels.2016.10.003
Keywords:
Alternatives to animal research, organ chip, microfluidic, cigarette smoke, electronic cigarette, lung airway, cell culture, cilia, human study, transcriptomic analysis, cytokine, biomarker
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Ben-David, U., Ha, G., Tseng, Y.-Y., Greenwald, N. F., Oh, C., Shih, J., et al. (2017). Patient-derived xenografts undergo mouse-specific tumor evolution. Nature Genetics, 49, 1567-1575
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3967
Keywords:
Bias, cancer, mouse, mice
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Berns, G. S., Brooks, A. M., & Spivak, M. (2012). Functional MRI in awake unrestrained dogs. PLoS ONE, 7(5), e38027. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038027.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0038027
Keywords:
Dogs
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Blundell, C., Tess, E. R., Schanzer, A. S. R., Coutifaris, C., Su, E. J., Parry, S., et al. (2016). A microphysiological model of the human placental barrier. Lab on a Chip, 16(16), 3065-3073
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C6LC00259E
Keywords:
Alternative to animal research, placenta on a chip
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Bopp, S., Berggren, E., Kienzler, A., van der Linden, S., & Worth, A. (2015). Scientific methodologies for the assessment of combined effects of chemicals – a survey and literature review. Use of novel and alternative methods in the assessment of effects from combined exposure to multiple chemicals (JRC Technical Reports): European Commission, European Union.
Link:
http://bookshop.europa.eu/is-bin/INTERSHOP.enfinity/WFS/EU-Bookshop-Site/en_GB/-/EUR/ViewPublication-Start?PublicationKey=LBNA27471
Keywords:
Alternatives, toxicology, public health
Record type:
Government Report
Citation
Bottini, A. A., & Hartung, T. (2009). Food for thought... on the economics of animal testing. ALTEX, 26(1), 3-16.
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/Current-issue.50.html?iid=104&aid=1
Keywords:
Economics, alternatives, food industry, drug industry, cosmetics industry
Record type:
Academic Paper,Expert Opinion
Citation
Bowen, A., & Casadevall, A. (2015). Increasing disparities between resource inputs and outcomes, as measured by certain health deliverables, in biomedical research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(36), 11335–11340.
Link:
http://www.pnas.org/content/112/36/11335.abstract
Keywords:
Research efficiency
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Brinks, V., Jiskoot, W., & Schellekens, H. (2011). Immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins: The use of animal models. Pharmaceutical Research, 28(10), 2379-2385.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-011-0523-5
Keywords:
Animal models, bias, immunogenicity, therapeutic proteins
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
Burden, N., Sewell, F., & Chapman, K. (2015). Testing chemical safety: What is needed to ensure the widespread application of non-animal approaches? PLoS Biology, 13(5), e1002156.
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1002156
Keywords:
alternatives, regulation, validation
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Carninci, P. (2014). Genomics: Mice in the ENCODE spotlight. Nature, 515(7527), 346-347.
Link:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v515/n7527/full/515346a.html
Keywords:
Mouse, mice, genome regulation
Record type:
Research Study
Citation
Cesarovic, N., Arras, M., & Jirkof, P. (2014). Impact of inhalation anaesthesia, surgery and analgesic treatment on home cage behaviour in laboratory mice. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 157, 137-145.
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168159114001130
Keywords:
Mice, mouse, animal welfare, anaesthesia
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Chandrasekera, P. C., & Pippin, J. J. (2013). Of rodents and men: Species-specific glucose regulation and Type 2 diabetes research. ALTEX.
Link:
http://www.altex.ch/resources/Chandrasekera_epub.pdf
Keywords:
Mouse, mice, type 2 diabetes, evidence bias
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Chandrasekera, P. C., & Pippin, J. J. (2015). The human subject: an integrative animal model for 21st century heart failure research. American Journal of Translational Research, 7(9), 1636-1647.
Link:
http://www.ajtr.org/files/ajtr0012548.pdf
Keywords:
Heart failure, animal models, translatability, human relevance, human-based research
Record type:
Academic Paper,Review
Citation
COACH. (2014). Towards the replacement of in vivo repeated dose systemic toxicity testing. SEURAT-1 Annual Report, Vol. 4: European Commission Research & Innovation, Cosmetics Europe.
Link:
http://www.seurat-1.eu/pages/library/seurat-1-annual-report.php
Keywords:
Toxicity testing, drug safety, cosmetics, alternatives
Record type:
Government Report
Citation
Coghlan, S. (2014). Recognizing nonhuman morality. Between the Species, 17(1).
Link:
http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/bts/vol17/iss1/5/
Keywords:
Ethics, morality
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
Committee on Toxicity Testing and Assessment of Environmental Agents, N. R. C. (2007). Toxicity testing in the 21st Century: A vision and a strategy. Washington, D. C.: The National Academies Press.
Link:
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11970/toxicity-testing-in-the-21st-century-a-vision-and-a
Keywords:
Toxicity testing, drug safety, alternatives
Record type:
Report
Citation
Couzin-Frankel, J. (2013). When mice mislead. Science, 342(6161), 922-925.
Link:
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/342/6161/922.short
Keywords:
Evidence bias, mouse, mice, animal model
Record type:
Expert Opinion
Citation
Cressey, D. (2015). UK funders demand strong statistics for animal studies. Move addresses concerns that some experiments are not using enough animals. Nature, 520(7547).
Link:
http://www.nature.com/news/uk-funders-demand-strong-statistics-for-animal-studies-1.17318
Keywords:
Bias, animal model, 3Rs
Record type:
Other
Citation
Gershlak, J. R., Hernandez, S., Fontana, G., Perreault, L. R., Hansen, K. J., Larson, S. A., et al. (2017). Crossing kingdoms: Using decellularized plants as perfusable tissue engineering scaffolds. Biomaterials, 125, 13-22.
Link:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142961217300856
Keywords:
Alternatives, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, decellularization, perfusable scaffold, plants
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
Cruelty Free International, & TSGE Consulting. (no year). How to avoid new animal tests in your 2018 REACH registration. A Cruelty Free International/TSGE Consulting report
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/REACH%202018%20guide.pdf
Keywords:
REACH, alternatives, 3Rs
Record type:
Report
Citation
Cruelty Free International. (no year). Implementing alternatives to animal testing. The RAT (Replace Animal Tests) list
Link:
https://crueltyfreeinternational.org/sites/default/files/RAT%20list%20wall%20chart%20briefing%20Final.pdf
Keywords:
Alternatives
Record type:
Other
Citation
Davis, J., Raisis, A. L., Cianciolo, R. E., Miller, D. W., Shiel, R. E., Nabity, M. B., et al. (2016). Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentration changes after acute haemorrhage and colloid-mediated reperfusion in anaesthetized dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 43(3), 262-270
Link:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12311
Keywords:
Greyhound dogs, acute kidney injury, hypotension, ischaemia
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
de Boo, J., & Knight, A. (2008). Increasing the implementation of alternatives to laboratory animal use. AATEX, 13(3), 109-117.
Link:
https://www.academia.edu/411052/Increasing_the_implementation_of_alternatives_to_laboratory_animal_use
Keywords:
3Rs, alternatives
Record type:
Academic Paper
Citation
de Waal, F. B., & Suchak, M. (2010). Prosocial primates: selfish and unselfish motivations. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society of London. Series B Biological Sciences, 365(1553), 2711-2722.
Link:
http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/365/1553/2711.long
Keywords:
Non-human primates, empathy, cooperation, behaviour
Record type:
Academic Paper,Research Study
Citation
DeGrazia, D. (1991). The moral status of animals and their use in research: a philosophical review. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 1(1), 48-70.
Link:
http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/ken/summary/v001/1.1.degrazia.html
Keywords:
Ethics
Record type:
Academic Paper

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